been existed from the beginning of the human being depending on the environment
conditions. It has given its first samples for protecting, covering human beings
and providing with the necessities of them. The handicrafts, which has later
improved and changed according to the environment conditions, has gained “traditional”
character by becoming an art which reflects the artistic sense of taste and
cultural characteristics of the community.
Turkish Hand Crafts has formed a rich mosaic by bringing together its genuine
values with the cultural heritage of the different civilizations which were
coming from the thousand years of history of the Anatolia.
Hand Crafts can be listed as; carpet making, rug making, sumac, cloth waiving,
writing, tile making, ceramic-pottery, handwork making, making embroidery, leather
manufacturing, music instrument making, masonry, coppersmith, basket making,
saddle making, mining, felt making, weaving, wood handicraft, cart making etc.
The raw material of the weaving is provided from the wool, mohair, cotton, bristle
Weaving can be
every kind of cloth, plait, carpet, rug, felt which are obtained by spinning
thread or connecting the fibers together by other methods.
weaving is a handicraft, which has been made in Anatolia for a long time and
was made for a living and still being made for a living in many regions.
which are one of the delicate samples of our handicrafts, are being used also
as a communication tool with their meaning carried other then decoration. Those
of the embroideries made with tools such as crochet needle, needle, shuttle,
hairpin designed either as a border or motif, are called with different names
according to the tool used and technique. These are can be listed as; needle,
crochet needle, shuttle, hairpin, silk cocoon, wool, candle stick, bead and
cloth left over. These have been made mostly in our districts such as Kastamonu,
Konya, Elazıg, Bursa, Bitlis, Gaziantep, İzmir, Ankara, Bolu, Kahramanmaraş,
Aydın, İçel, Tokat, Kütahya but they try to exist in trousseau chests since
they are loosing their former importance.
Along with our
embroideries used with the traditional costumes the “takı”, which are put around
one’s neck, are also the important accessories. All civilizations lived in Anatolia,
have produced works of art having artistic value with precious and semi precious
stones by either working up with metals or separately. The most importance of
the various methods which have come with Seljuks are Turkmen Takı. At the Ottoman
period the jewelry has gained importance in parallel to the development of the
the periods of the Bronze Age in Anatolia when the bronze have been obtained
by mixing the tin with copper, the materials such as copper, gold, silver have
been also worked up by using the cast and wrought technique. The most used material
is copper. The techniques such as wrought, scraping, savaklama (engraving in
black on silver) have been used. The handicrafts made with copper, as well as
the metals such as brass, gold, silver, are tried to be kept alive today by
using high quality workmanship and various designs. The copper, which is the
most widespread metal work up used today, is continued to be used by making
cookware by tin foiling it. The architect created from the sheltering requirement
has been designed and increased in varieties according to the conditions of
the environment. The wooden workmanship, developed depending on that, has reached
a characteristic quality unique to itself in Seljuk period. The wooden arts
in Seljuks and rank of rulers are mostly the architectural elements such as
niche of a mosque indicating the direction of Mecca, mosque door, cupboard covers
and have included high quality workmanship. In Ottoman period these have been
applied mostly in ever day used objects such as tripod, wooden stand for a quilted
turban, writing set, drawer, chest, spoon, throne, rowboat, low reading desk,
Koran cover and architectural work of arts such as window, wardrobe cover, beam,
console, ceiling, niche of a mosque indicating the direction of Mecca, pulpit,
material used in the wooden workmanship is mostly walnut, apple, pear, cedar,
ebony and rose tree. The wooden objects worked by the techniques such as tapping,
painting, relief-engrave, cage, coating, burning are still used nowadays. The
usage of the walking stick and stick batons which are made by using these techniques
still used in districts such as Zonguldak, Bitlis, Gaziantep, Bursa, İstanbul-Beykoz,
Ordu have been lasted hundreds of years and became very common in 19th
century. The handles of the walking sticks and stick batons are made of materials
such as silver, gold, bone and the body part are made of wood such as rose,
cherry, ebony, bamboo, reed etc. trees.
instruments has been continued since the old times. These instruments are being
made by using trees, plants and the skin, bones and horns of the animals. The
are grouped as strings, woodwind and percussion instruments. The other work
art branch developed as depending on the architecture is glazed tile art. It
was brought in Anatolia by Seljuks. The Seljuks artisans who were not hesitated
to use figured work of arts were very successful especially in animal description.
The glazed tile art initiated in 14th century in İznik, 15th
century in Kütahya, 17th century in Çanakkale, has brought new designs
to the Ottoman period ceramic and glazed tile arts. The glazed tile and ceramic
art between 14-19th century has gained word wide fame with its extraordinary
most distinctive samples of the glass workmanship obtained from the Anatolian
civilizations enlighten the development of the glass history. The vitray in
different models and forms has been developed in Seljuk period. In Ottoman Empire
period İstanbul has become the center of the glass art center. Çeşmi-i Bülbül
is one of the techniques, which has been able to arrive from that period to
our days. First production of the glass as a bead for averting the evil eye
has been achieved by the craftsmen of İzmir-Görele village. It is possible to
see in every part of Anatolia beads for averting the evil eye. It is believed
that the glances directed to the living creature or objects can be averted by
the amulet. Because of that the amulets made of bead for averting the evil eye
are put on the part of the living creature or the object where can be seen easily.
is takes important role in exterior and interior decoration in traditional architecture.
The most used area of the stone workmanship other than the architecture is gravestone.
The techniques such as carving, relief, script are applied. The ornamental motifs
used are plants, geometric motifs and writing and figures. The animal figures
are less. The human being figures are seen in Seljuk period. The basket making
is made by weaving reed, willow, and nut branches as learnt by ancestors. It
is started being used for inside home decoration other than carrying purpose.
The saddles made of felt, rough clothes has formed a branch of the traditional
artworks during the period when it was used widely at the rural areas dealing
Depending on the
changing living conditions, mainly industries, productions of these almost diminished.
At the area inspections, made each year in the area determined by General Directorate,
it is tried to find out by filming. The information obtained are recorded in
the archive of the General Directorate and presented to the usage of the scientist
working in this field and experts and students.